Wormholes and quantum entanglement: from hypothesis to model

There is an amazing phenomenon in quantum physics called entanglement. This lies in the fact that two particles can be so tightly bound that their states depend on each other, even when they are separated by a great distance. This means that if we measure one particle, we immediately know the state of the other particle without interacting with it. This seems impossible, because how can particles exchange information faster than the speed of light? One of the answers to this question was given by physicists Leonard Susskind and Juan Maldacena, who suggested that there is a special space-time connection between entangled particles – wormholes. A wormhole is a theoretical structure that represents a shortcut between two distant points in space-time. Wormholes appeared as solutions to Einstein’s gravitational equations, but their reality and characteristics have not been confirmed by observations. Published by image maker Bing, Susskind and Maldacena named their idea ER = EPR, where ER stands for Einstein-Rosen bridge (another name for a wormhole) and EPR is stands for the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pair (a classic example of entangled particles). They argue that a wormhole is a mechanism that provides quantum communication between particles at its two ends. However, this connection does not violate the principle of cause and effect, because the wormhole is closed, that is, no one and nothing can pass through it. But how can we test or study this hypothesis? How can we build a model that describes a system of entangled particles and a wormhole? Physicist Ben Kine of Collège Sainte-Croix tried to answer these questions. He developed a quantitative model for ER=EPR in which he considered two spin 1/2 charged particles in the singlet state (meaning their spins are in opposite directions).

He proposed that these particles obey the Dirac equation with minimal interaction with gravity. He found static solutions to this equation in the form of wormholes, then pursued them over time. His results showed that black holes form around the particles, connected by a wormhole. This wormhole closes because the black hole does not allow light to pass through. Additionally, he discovered that the mouth of the wormhole narrows, bringing particles closer together and allowing the wormhole to act as a quantum communication channel. This model represents an exciting and important step in exploring the ER=EPR hypothesis, which can help us understand the connection between quantum mechanics and gravity. However, this also leaves many unsolved problems, such as: where does information go when it falls into a black hole? What types of wormholes are there and can they be opened? What is the fundamental nature of quantum entanglement and gravity? These and other questions require further research and testing, which may reveal to us secrets about our world.

The Dirac equation is an equation that describes the behavior of relativistic spin 1/2 particles such as electrons and protons. It takes into account wave and particle properties as well as their charge and mass. The Dirac equation helps explain certain quantum effects such as spin, antiparticles, and tunneling. However, the Dirac equation does not take into account the interactions of particles with gravity, described by Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Therefore, the Dirac equation is incomplete and needs to be modified or generalized to describe quantum gravity. What is a black hole and how does it form? A black hole is a region of space-time from which nothing, not even light, can escape. A black hole is formed after the collapse of a large object under the influence of its own gravity. The boundary of the black hole is called the event horizon, behind which lies a singularity – a point of infinite density and curvature of space-time. The properties of a black hole are determined by its mass, charge, and angular momentum. How to measure or observe a wormhole?

Measuring or observing wormholes is a very difficult task because wormholes are thought to be very small and unstable. However, there are theoretical ways to detect a wormhole, for example by its gravitational effect on surrounding matter or by radiation. It is also possible to try to create a wormhole in the laboratory using extreme conditions such as high energy or magnetic fields. However, these methods have not yet been put into practice and require further technological and theoretical development. Is it possible to create a wormhole in the laboratory? Creating a wormhole in the laboratory is a very difficult and controversial task, requiring the use of quantum computers and theoretical models. Some physicists claim to have successfully created wormholes using magnetic fields or quantum entanglement, but these experiments have not been confirmed by other scientists and are controversial. Therefore, there is currently no clear answer to this question and further research and experiments are needed to understand whether it is possible to create a wormhole in the laboratory and how to do it .