Webb could directly test one of the dark matter theories

What is the relationship between galaxies and dark matter? Many, if not all, galaxies are surrounded by a halo of this mysterious, unknown, but ubiquitous matter. It is also involved in the formation of galaxies. Astronomers are still trying to understand the nature of this role. Now they are exploring the beginning of the universe, looking for the smallest and brightest galaxies. Finally, they help talk about the role of dark matter in its formation. An international team of astronomers led by Smadar Naoz of the University of California is modeling the early formation of galaxies. Their computer program tracks the circumstances surrounding the formation of galaxies in the immediate aftermath of the Big Bang. These latest computer models include several new features. They take into account the previously ignored interactions between dark matter and the gases of hydrogen and helium, the original matter of the universe. The simulations produce smaller, brighter galaxies that form faster than computer models that do not account for these movements. Now astronomers just need to find them with Webb’s help to test how true their dark matter theory is. Interaction between dark matter and supersonic baryonic matter How could the interaction between baryonic matter and dark matter affect the situation? Possible stories include: In the early universe, clouds of gas passed through clumps of dark matter at supersonic speeds. The gas was bounced off by dark matter. Eventually, after millions of years, the gaseous material came together again and formed stars in a star-forming explosion. The team’s model tracks the formation of these galaxies shortly after the Big Bang.

Naoz’s team believes the presence of these smaller, brighter and more distant galaxies could support the so-called “cold dark matter” model. This suggests that after the Big Bang, the universe was in a hot, dense state containing only gas. Over time, this led to an uneven distribution of galaxies (eventually forming galaxy clusters). Stars and galaxies were formed during this process, but the initial stages probably depended on gravitational interactions with dark matter. If the supersonic interactions simulated by Naoz’s team actually happened, the result would be these tiny galaxies. Modeling the formation of galaxies and the influence of dark matter During his research, Webb observed several relatively early galaxies. The oldest of them has not yet been discovered. But the images he provides provide an intriguing glimpse into what may have existed in earlier times, and could provide insight into the role of dark matter. Therefore, it is natural for astronomers to want to go back in time as far as possible. That means looking for bright spots of light that existed hundreds of millions of years after the Big Bang. “The discovery of small, bright galaxies in the early universe would confirm that we are on the right track with the cold dark matter model, because the relationship between the two types of matter is the only type of galaxy we are looking for. ‘Cause you can lead to different types of people,’ says Naoz. “If dark matter behaves differently than normal cold dark matter and there is no trickle effect, then these bright dwarf galaxies would not be discovered and we would have to go back to square one.” A paper by team member and lead author Claire Williams, published in Astrophysical Journal Letters, suggests that scientists are beginning to use the web to search for galaxies that are much brighter than expected. ing. If they existed, it would likely be evidence that the interaction occurred early in cosmic time. If they aren’t found, scientists may not yet understand the physics of dark matter interactions. The main questions still need to be answered. If they exist, how do they form so quickly and why are they so bright? Flowing through the corridors of dark matter Let’s understand this by looking at the role of dark matter. The standard cosmological model states that the gravitational pull of a mass of dark matter in the early universe attracted normal matter. This eventually led to the formation of stars and then galaxies. Dark matter is thought to move more slowly than light. Therefore, astronomers predicted that the formation of stars and galaxies would occur very slowly. At least, that’s what simulations so far suggest. But what if something different happened more than 13 billion years ago? How would it be different? This was the time before the first galaxies were formed. At this time, large amounts of ordinary matter in the form of hydrogen and helium were flowing through the expanding universe. It bounced off slower clumps of dark matter, surpassing gravity, at least for a while. After that, the baryonic matter re-agglomerated under the influence of dark matter. And the fireworks of a star is born began.

“The flow suppressed star formation in the smallest galaxies, but it also increased star formation in dwarf galaxies, dwarfing regions of the universe without the flow,” Williams says. Basically, after millions of years, the accumulated gas began to clump together. This triggered massive star formation. Many large, hot, young stars began to shine, obscuring the stars of other smaller galaxies. After all, this means that since dark matter is “invisible,” these bright areas in galaxies could be indirect evidence of its existence. And they proved what role dark matter played in the formation of galaxies. look for bright spots No one saw what Naoz and his team were looking for. But if discovered, it could help us understand the role of cold dark matter. “The discovery of small, bright galaxies in the early universe would confirm that we are on the right track with the cold dark matter model, because the relationship between the two types of matter is the only type of galaxy we are looking for. ‘Cause you can lead to different types of people,’ says Naoz. Of course, the Webb is the ideal telescope to observe these galaxies. It should be possible to peer into a region of space where baby galaxies are brighter than astronomers expected. This extreme brightness helps Webb detect them and show us what the universe was like when it was only a few hundred million years old. Because dark matter cannot be studied directly, finding patches of these bright baby galaxies in the early universe could be a powerful test of theories about dark matter and its role in the formation of the first galaxies. there is.